آپوپتوزیس

آپوپتوزیس

The Adaptive Immune Response

I. Defining the Adaptive Immune Response 
       A. Specific Immunity – third line of defense – marked by specificity and memory

                    1. Humoral or antibody mediated immunity  Lymphocytes B cells

                    2. Cellular immunity – Lymphocytes -T cells

                    3. Origin of the Immune System -

        B. Primary and Secondary Response

II. Lymphatic System Overview

        A. Lymphatic vessels  &  Lymph -

        B. Lymphoid organs- lymph nodes, tonsils & aggregates (Peyer’s patches), spleen - blood reservoir

                      1. thymus

                                    a. educates & distributes T-cells

                             b. secretes thymosin

               2. Bone Marrow- Stem Cells –

             a.  home of stem cells – progenitor of all blood cells

                      b.  produces, educates and distributes B cells

 

III. Antigens and Antibodies

            A. Antigen - Antibody Interactions

                       1. Specific Antibody production -  

                            a. Antibodies per plasma cell (B cell)

                            b. Variety of antibodies

IV. The Antibody Mediated Immunity or Humoral (Abs)

            A. Production- Plasma cells and memory cells

            B. Basic structure

                      1.  ag binding end - variable

                                           2. constant end

            C. Types  of immunoglobulins or antibodies

             

                     

            C. Antibody Memory response

                        1. Primary antibody - IgM - large

                        2. Secondary antibody - IgG

 

            D. Actions of Antibodies

                        1.   neutralization - coats a toxin or virus inactivating it

 

2.  agglutination - attaches to multiple cells making a clump - blood typing

 3. opsonization - candy coating of bacteria for phagocytosis

 4. complement interaction -   drills holes in cells

 

  V. Cellular Immunity- T and B cells work together

               A. T cells -

1.     Cytotoxic T cells (CD8)- induce apoptosis which is known as programmed cell death, destroy cancer cells

2.     Delayed hypersensitivity T cells – involved in allergic reactions

3.     Helper T-cells (CD4 or T4 cells) - respond to the APC cells presenting the antigens, activate the other cells

4.     Suppressor T-cell - sends out the message to curtail the action

       B. Types of immunity mediated by T-cell (localized in nature and tissue or target specific)

   1. fungal infections, parasitic infections, Tb

   2. transplant rejection

   3. contact and skin allergies

    4. Viral infected cell

                 C. Tests for T cell immune response are skin tests

                 D. Natural Killer Cells - enhance the specific immune response, but are non-specific in nature

  VI. Connection between the Immune System and the Nervous System

VII. Types of Acquired Immunity

Type of Acquired Immunity Method of acquiring the immunity Duration Example
Naturally Acquired Active Immunity      
Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity      
Artificially Acquired Active Immunity      
Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity